Biofilms that form in the human body are up to ten thousand times more resistant to antibiotics than free-floating bacteria, making them very difficult to treat medically. These biofilms are responsible for the extreme persistence of many difficult to treat illnesses like Legionnaire’s disease, Staphylococcus aureus (“Staph”), and infectious bronchitis, that can trouble patients with frustrating symptoms for years.

Some years ago researchers showed that biofilms might also be helping the Lyme-causing bacteria evade treatment.(1) These findings have excited Lyme researchers who have since been exploring various treatment strategies designed to target the entire bacterial colony. If successful, these treatments might bring long-needed relief to patients with late-stage or persistent Lyme disease where antibiotics have previously failed.

At Bay Area Lyme Foundation, we are also inspired by these discoveries and hopeful about the treatment options they may bring. Recently we invited Daina Zeng, a Senior Scientist at Agile Sciences, to talk about the work her team is doing adapting Agile’s proprietary non-toxic organic compounds to disperse these bacterial colonies (technology they have leveraged for medical, agricultural, and industrial uses). Her post follows.

What is a biofilm?

A biofilm is something that we come into contact with every day. The plaque that forms on your teeth and causes tooth decay is a type of biofilm. Clogged drains are also caused by biofilm, and you may have encountered biofilm-coated rocks when walking into a river or stream.

Biofilms form when bacteria adhere to surfaces in some form of watery environment and begin to excrete a slimy, glue-like substance that can stick to all kinds of materials including metals, plastics, medical implant materials, and biological tissues. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial species or many species of bacteria, as well as fungi, algae, protozoa, debris, and corrosion products. Essentially, a biofilm may form on any surface exposed to bacteria and some amount of water.

Zeng_life cycle of biofilm image
Image: Stages of Biofilm Development(2)

Biofilms are thought to be responsible for more than 80% of microbial diseases, such as:

  • Otitis media, the most common acute ear infection in US children
  • Bacterial endocarditis, infection of the inner surface of the heart and its valves
  • Cystic fibrosis, a chronic disorder resulting in increased susceptibility to serious lung infections
  • Legionnaire’s disease, an acute respiratory infection resulting from the aspiration of clumps of Legionnella biofilms detached from air and water heating/cooling and distribution systems
  • Chronic wounds (wounds that do not heal within three months)
  • Hospital-acquired infections, such as infections acquired from the surfaces of catheters, medical implants, wound dressing, or other medical devices

How might a biofilm explain the persistence of Lyme?

Forming a biofilm is a very effective protective mechanism and bacteria encased in a biofilm are highly resistant to antibiotics (up to 10,000-fold). So antibiotic treatment is often times not effective against cells protected in a biofilm. Unfortunately, cells within a biofilm can return to their freeliving form and escape to form new biofilms and/or colonize new tissues. Since antibiotics can’t be continuously given to a patient, there really isn’t anything to stop these bacteria cells from spreading the disease. It’s really a vicious cycle.

What has the research actually shown regarding Lyme disease and biofilms? What is the importance of some of the more recent studies?

Even though biofilms have been attributed as one of the underlying causes that make other chronic bacterial infections so difficult to treat, (such as cystic fibrosis, chronic wounds, endocarditis, etc.), biofilms have not been well studied in Lyme disease. There are papers showing that Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, forms biofilms outside of a host (in vitro).

Image of Borrelia burgdorferi biofilm formed on slides and visualized by microscopy
Image of Borrelia burgdorferi biofilm formed on slides and visualized by microscopy

Current studies are being done to probe the presence of biofilms in animal models and even human patient biopsy samples. We look forward to the results of those studies that should be coming out in the next year or so.

These studies are very important since they increase our understanding of Borrelia burgdorferi; and given that biofilms are so prevalent and relevant in other pathogens, it’s worthwhile to study whether biofilms play a role in Lyme disease as well.

Is it possible that the antibiotics might actually trigger the biofilms to create a stronger barrier?

Absolutely! Biofilm is a protective mechanism that cells turn on when they sense they’re under stress, so there’s significantly more biofilm formation when cells are treated with antimicrobial agents including antibiotics. Numerous studies have shown this for nearly all antibiotics.

To what extent does it mask the Lyme bacteria from detection?

Since bacteria are encased in a biofilm and are not free-swimming in solution, they can be hard to detect using diagnostic tests that rely on solution samples (i.e. blood, etc).

What can be done to combat the biofilms?

The only way to effectively combat a biofilm is to “pop the bubble” and disperse it. There are two major ways to do that: (1) using mechanical force to scrape it off (similar to a teeth cleaning), or (2) tricking the cells into dispersing themselves. Since Lyme disease is within the body, it’s not possible to use mechanical force. So the only available tool left is to use chemical compounds that inhibit the ability of cells to form and maintain biofilms.

At Agile Sciences, we have developed compounds that inhibit bacteria’s ability to turn on the pathways required for biofilm formation. So when we treat bacteria with our compounds, we see significantly less biofilm formation, and we’re also able to disperse existing biofilms. We think the best use of these compounds is in combination with antibiotics. The idea would be for our compound to “pop” the biofilm so the antibiotic could now kill the pathogen.

Support from Bay Area Lyme Foundation has allowed us to identify compounds (known as Agilyte®) that have efficacy against Borrelia burgdorferi biofilms and show synergy with commonly used antibiotics in Lyme disease, including doxycycline (see Figure below), ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin. We’re currently applying for further funding from NIH to develop these compounds as a novel therapeutic to enhance antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. See here for more information about the Agile project.

Zeng_Agilyte Technology_624
Agile Sciences’ Agilyte® technology works synergistically with antibiotics (Biofilms are stained with the biomass indicator dye crystal violet for visualization)

What new research might help advance this line of treatment?

At the end of the day, I really do believe we need to have a further understanding of how Borrelia acts in the human body and whether they form biofilms. Since biofilms are so prevalent and increasingly implicated in more and more diseases, I think it’s important to study if it plays a role in Lyme disease.

On our end, we’re working on getting funding that will allow us to take our compounds into animals to see if using our compound can enhance doxycycline treatment in mice.

*****

(1) Sapi et al. “Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.” PLOS One, 2012: 7 (10).

(2) Monroe, D., “Looking for Chinks in the Armor of Bacterial Biofilms,” PLoS Biology, Vol. 5, No. 11, e307 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050307

Images courtesy of Monroe (Stages of Biofilm Development), Sapi et al. (Borrelia burgdorferi biofilm), and Zeng (Agilyte® Technology).

 

65 Comments on “Straight Talk about Biofilms: A New Answer for Treating Lyme Disease?

    1. Please send me any information you have about biofilm. I’ve been in chronic pain for over 2 1/2 years now with no relief and nothing shows up on scans and no drugs have worked either. I am working now with the distance healer that says this is probably what I’m dealing with. My chronic pain is in my lower abdomen into the pelvic floor is absolutely unbearable at times. I’ve lost all quality of life.

    2. About 8 years ago I got the movie: Under Our Skin from the public library for free to watch and learned more from that movie than this site here. Near the end of the movie, you will see the doctor and his microscope pictures proving there was the biofilm colonies of borrelia burgdorferi that was the cause of Chronic Lyme. High strength Bountico silver ten thousand parts per million blows a hole in the biofilm and goes inside and kills the inhabitants. Do you research: Lymes ms biofilm silver

    3. Thank you for the interest. Unfortunately the Agilyte compound, while effective against the bacteria’s biofilm, proved toxic for human consumption and is not a suitable candidate for therapeutic use. Agile and Bay Area Lyme both remain committed to exploring other promising avenues in therapeutic research. While we will inevitably encounter disappointments in the pursuit of innovative solutions, it is important that we support novel research approaches for fighting Lyme disease.

  1. I’m presently being treated aggressively for Lyme with 2 antibiotics, malarial drug and fungal drug. I’ve taken this a month and have become very sick, nausea, headache and inability to eat. I’ve last 10 pounds in couple weeks. Is this a normal reaction? I’m also taking glutathione and now gag every time I take it plus get indigestion from it.

    1. What about Lugol’s Potassium Iodine 2%, has that been studied? Has Lugol’s Iodine been used in the treatment of malaria? I think I had read it was more effective than the drugs. Does Lugol’s Potassium Iodine kill gram negative- and gram-positive bacteria? Is castor oil used as a carrier for some type of drug in cancer patients??? Is castor oil good on its own? Is Lugol’s Iodine effective with a combination of castor oil and Lugol’s Potassium Iodine on the skin? Believe I read that cinnamon essential oil was effective in dissolving biofilm… wonder if it is? I think it was in an iodine solution. Maybe google to investigate.

    2. Bobby yes. Please keep going. It’s exactly how I was. Keep treating. You will get it into remission

    3. Go to Wikipedia and read the medical term: herxheimer. Probably the most important word in the medical dictionary with only a small percentage should knows knowing its meaning.

    4. Go to Wikipedia and type in the word: herxheimer. It is the most important word I know of in the medical industry and it and its meaning are unknown to a huge percentage of those in the industry. Just try it — ask your doctors and nurses. Do go read it for yourself. Without the understanding of this word, many people stop taking things that will help them and blame the thing they are taking for making them more ill.

  2. I am working with Stevia, grown in hydroponics with silver as one of the nutrients. I would like to see if we can test this in dogs we think may have Lyme. Not yet ready to try with humans due to possible side effects of this Stevia.

  3. Hello I’m a Lyme sufferer 24 years,

    I suffered from Lyme disease since my childhood 24 years, and I found no solution and help in my country.

    I am desperately looking for any kind of help or advice, how to fight or how to recover from this disease.

    If there is any chance or solution for a treatment, or if you know a Lyme disease specialist MD in Europe, please write to me ! Please Help me!

    1. Hi Mihaly, Unfortunately awareness and understanding about Lyme disease is only slowly growing, but it is growing and there are ways to get help. We would strongly encourage you to consult the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) physician referral tool, it is an international database and may help you find a specialist in your area. You may also want to look for local Lyme disease support groups as those communities may also offer suggestions about local experts and resources. We wish you the best of health and hope you find the care you need.

    2. I understand how you feel I’ve had chronic late stage Lyme disease for over 20 years! I would recommend Dr Klinghardt. He has 3 offices in Europe-he is a Lyme Literate MD originally from Germany. Google: Sophia Health Institute that’s his website. Good Luck to you!

    3. I am not a medical professional nor have Lyme. Also not a seller but have pylori [bacterial infection in digestive tract] ongoing. But I see some useful supplements that you can try.

      1. Interfase Plus (this breaks the biofilm)
      2. Monolaurin (coconut oil derived) or you can use your regular antibiotic

      Caution: Always start with a very small dose and gradually increase it. Some microbes exhibit very unpleasant die off effects. I wish you good health.

    4. Google the salt protocol. Do that for two weeks. Then do replenishing with probiotics for two weeks. Eat whole foods. Take an adaptogen like holy basil or red korean ginseng. The idea is to activate the immune system. The adaptogen will kick ur immune response up or down as needed. Rest. Take cbd oil and.or black seed oil also. This is what I did to save my little girl from lyme and it worked.

    5. I live in the Netherlands and had Lyme for 2 years. I used Monolaurin 600 m. capsules 3 x a day for 6 months, then gradually cut down. I’m symptom-free 3 years later with only one maintenance capsule of 300 mg. per day. I did some other things as well, but this is what helped me the most.

  4. Hello I’m a Lyme sufferer interested in your help or providing any info to assist in any way. We are desperate for relief. Thanks for your work.

  5. All my family is suffering of this disease, including a kid of 11 years than 10 years. I am very interested in this, please add me to your list. Thank you for your research.

    1. Best wishes, Irina, to you and your family. We will definitely pass on your contact information to the research team.

  6. I do not live in the Bay Area but on the East coast. I’m sorry for the delay of your funding but if it gets going again, I am interested in your study if possible. If not, do you know of any similar studies out this way? Been suffering for 10 years + with little luck in busting the biofilm. Can you tell me where to find the ionic silver you speak of? Thank you!

    1. Hi Patti, We will certainly pass on your contact information to the researchers for when the study resumes. In the interim, you may find some suggestions about how to find other studies and clinical trials from this post earlier this spring. (The last section talks about various databases that track active studies. Best wishes.

    2. I would like to have my contact added to any future study. I am suffering greatly with most likely Babesia which is slowly draining the life and the will from me.

    3. We will absolutely pass on your interest and contact information to the researchers and wish you health and recovery.

  7. Silver Ions Bust Through Bacterial Biofilms. A number of new studies demonstrate conclusively that antimicrobial silver busts through bacterial biofilms, and can even prevent microbes from forming biofilms. This is important news because biofilms are the protective “fort”-like structures erected by colonies of pathogens in order to evade the effects of antibiotic drugs.

    Here’s what current clinical research is demonstrating about this most remarkable quality of antimicrobial silver…

    From Steve Barwick, author of The Ultimate Colloidal Silver Manual

    “It’s estimated that up to 80% of all infections involve biofilms, including but not limited to urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle ear infections, dental plaque infections, gingivitis (i.e., gum infections), chronic sinusitis, burn wound infections, bone infections and some heart and lung infections as well.

    “Bacterial biofilms are essentially “slime cities” of pathogens protected by an “extracellular matrix” constructed of (and held together by) proteins and polysaccharides commonly referred to as extracellular polymeric substances (i.e., EPS). After adhering to a surface, the bacteria begin secreting the proteins and polysaccharides which are in turn used to build the protective matrix around the bacterial colony as it grows. This in turn acts as a “fort,” so to speak, making the colonies of pathogens far more difficult to kill even with the strongest of antibiotics.

    “These bacterial biofilms are one of the main ways bacteria are able to defeat the effects of antibiotic drugs, other than through mutation. Thankfully, researchers are discovering that colloidal silver – in the form of silver ions – can effectively impair bacterial biofilms by destabilizing the protective extracellular matrix constructed around them.In other words, the silver ions essentially poke holes in the walls of the bacterial “fort,” causing the walls to begin to crumble, and exposing the pathogens hiding inside.”

    Another study published in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Dec. 2005, American Society for Microbiology), revealed that the extracellular matrix around Staphylococci epidermis biofilms have been found to be “markedly impaired” by very low levels of silver ions. According to the study authors, silver ions destabilize the extracellular polymeric substances (i.e., EPS) of which the biofilm matrix is constructed and held together. The study authors state:

    “Our AFM studies on the intermolecular forces within the extracellular polymeric substances of S. epidermidis RP62A and S. epidermidis 1457 biofilms suggest that the silver ions can destabilize the biofilm matrix by binding to electron donor groups of the biological molecules.

    “…This leads to reductions in the number of binding sites for hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and, hence, the destabilization of the biofilm structure…

    “…After the addition of silver ions and within 60 min of contact, the overall structure of the biofilm became partially destroyed and the inner structure of biofilm was exposed.

    “There were also significant amounts of EPSs around the damaged biofilm colony, confirming the effect of silver ions on the grown biofilm matrix.”

    Now that’s quite a mouthful, isn’t it? But in plain English the study authors are saying, essentially, that the silver ions destabilize the biofilms through an electro-chemical process that ultimately robs the biofilms of their structural integrity. The extracellular matrix, or “fort” that’s been constructed around the bacterial biofilm colonies begin to fall apart, thereby exposing the pathogens. Importantly, the silver ions can accomplish this within 60 minutes of exposure to the biofilms, and at very low levels.

    The study authors focused on two different strains of Staphylococci epidermis — a Staph bacteria of the skin that’s very similar to Staphylococcus aureus of MRSA fame. Other pathogens such as Psuedomonas aureginosa are also known to protect their colonies from the effects of antibiotic drugs with biofilms.

    In another study, published in the journal Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, (Vol. 79, Issue 2, Sept. 2010), titled “Silver Nanoparticles Impede Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis,” it was demonstrated that a staggering 95% inhibition of biofilm formation could be achieved within 24 hours simply by treating the Pseudomonas microorganism with silver nanoparticles. This may be one reason why colloidal silver is so effective against Pseudomonas infections, as well.

    Plaque on teeth is also a protective biofilm produced by dental pathogens. Interestingly enough, in the past, silver has also been shown — both in animal studies and in research for a dental patent — to help rid teeth of plaque.

    Even E. coli bacteria have been known to produce biofilms. And of course, E. coli is another pathogen known to be susceptible to the infection-fighting qualities of antimicrobial silver.

    And in another study, published in the journal Biofouling, titled “Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles: Antifungal Effect Against Adhered Cells and Biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata,” it was found that silver nanoparticles exhibited fungicidal activity against two species of fungi “at very low concentrations.”

    More importantly, it was discovered that the silver nanoparticles were effective in inhibiting biofilm formation by these fungi – in other words, the silver prevented the fungi from building biofilms. However, the researchers found that in the case of these two fungi, the silver nanoparticles were not quite as effective in breaking down existing fungal biofilm formations.

    In a more recent study titled “Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-Negative Bacteria,” (Science Translational Medicine, June 2013), it was revealed by the study authors that silver-treated bacteria weren’t even able to produce a biofilm at all, and that when drug-resistant biofilms were treated with silver, the bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs was completely negated.

    “Overall, what we show is that small amounts of silver, non-toxic levels, can be used in conjunction with commonly used antibiotics to treat persistent infection and to treat bio-film based infections, which are problematic for medical implants,” study author Jim Collins said.

    Also quite interesting is a 2001 press release from a company called NVID International, Inc., developers of a disinfectant product called Axenohl, which is “an ionic silver-based antimicrobial technology.”

    Axenohl, composed of stabilized ionic silver, was tested in the municipal drinking water system in Grecia, Costa Rica, which had become non-potable (i.e., non-drinkable) due to coliform bacteria contamination. As a result of the use of only 78 parts per billion Axenohl in the city’s water supply – a remarkably small amount of silver — the bacterial count decreased from over 200 CFU (i.e., coliform forming units) per 100 ml water to zero CFU per 100 ml water, in only 10 days. Moreover, “Axenohl proved to control and reduce the presence and growth of biofilm in the piping distribution network.”

    So thanks in large part to recent research, it’s becoming abundantly clear that in many cases, silver is able to either inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilms, or even bust through and destroy existing biofilms, depending upon the type of pathogen involved. This is great news, because it demonstrates another important quality possessed by antimicrobial silver which is not possessed by Big Pharma’s failing prescription antibiotic drugs. And it offers new hope that antimicrobial silver will ultimately be recognized as the solution to the growing problem of drug-resistant pathogens.

  8. Lyme literate MD in mexico had me do a PCR blood test. Confirmed Borrelia B + Babesia micoti co-infection. 20 yrs worth of misery. + mother died from similar “symptoms.”

  9. My son has chronic neurological Lyme. He has no use of his right hand and drags his right foot. His thinking is unclear and he has to ask us to repeat information over and over. He is 26 and has regressed to a preteen in behavior. We are so saddened and frustrated with how to help him. We would be amenable to any studies with which he could participate.

  10. Very interested in any research. Willing to be a volunteer to help diagnose Lyme. As of now I cannot receive any treatment because not enough bands show positive. I am severely ill. Kidney failure. White lesions on brain. Spine being attacked by something. Regular MDs cannot figure it out. Please help!!

    1. You need to get to a Lyme literate MD VERY QUICKLY. My daughter only had 1-band positive and I begged for antibiotic treatment. After seeing 33 MDs we finally found someone to help. Dr. Elena Frid in NYC. I thank God for her numerous times a day. Don’t waste you time, money or health by seeing anything other than a Lyme literate MD. I am a nurse and supposedly took my 29-year-old daughter to the best doctors. Not so. Half don’t believe in Lyme disease and the labs can give 50% false negatives. God Bless you!

    2. Sorry to hear about your doctor’s shortcomings concerning your health. As Dawn stated you need a qualified doctor that knows how to treat Lyme. The test you were given for Lyme is now obsolete and you shouldn’t rely on it. There is a large network of qualified doctors around the world that can properly treat Lyme disease and other similar ailments, along with all their co-factors and complexities. Dr. Jay Dividson is one such doctor and could be referred to as the head of that large network. Many of the doctors in the network have had Lyme themselves and in Jay’s case, his wife. Weather you use Jay or ask him for a referral, they can and will help, but don’t expect a simple magic pill. There is none!

    3. Jenni – If you haven’t already found a Dr. to treat you – find a Lyme Specialist who will do an NK CD57 lab test – performed at LabCorp. If your numbers are lower than 60 you most definitely have Lyme disease. I tested negative for all bands on Western Blot, but my CD57 marker was 13! Normal is 360 or higher. After a few courses of antibiotics the Lyme bands started showing up. If your immune system is not producing antibodies to fight the Lyme – the bands will not show up, therefore, you cannot rely on Western Blot and ELISA alone. I’m proof of that! I’m still fighting the battle and learning more and more as I read the information posted in this type of forum/website. Stay strong and persistent and trust your instincts! I saw 6 Drs before I found one with the knowledge to test CD57 and ignore my negative Western Blot.
      ~Best of luck to you and BLESSINGS!

  11. There are so many of us that need the right treatment for this disease. Please add my contact to the list of desperate people searching for a cure.

    1. From the research team at Agile: Unfortunately the original project has been stalled due to their inability to secure additional government funding to continue the research, however, they are making headway in some related work and hope to share the results later this year. This work, while not directly in the field of Lyme disease, examines compounds with similar mechansims of action and hopefully will help with the FDA approval of the Lyme-related research and/or other funding opportunities from the government. Please stay tuned for more updates later this year. Thank you for your interest and support.

  12. I have been in this fight since 1982. Been doing oral and IV Abx and recently looking at ways to bust biofilm. I have a PICC and am interested in ways to aggressively do this. If there is a study, I am very interested.

    1. Thank you for your interest. We will pass on your contact info to the research team. We wish you strength in your fight and hope for a healthy future.

    2. Biofilm is only one element of chronic Lyme disease. I regret to inform you that while Lyme can be successfully treated, it is far more complex then you appear to realize. The biofilm is not easy to correctly address, without disturbing the necessary biofilms of all the organs of the body. You must also address their present across the blood brain barrier, plus their present within the body’s cells without damaging those cells, and possible parasites that are harboring them . It is also common to have viruses, fungus, mold, multiple bacteria and parasite issues. These issues are beyond most doctors and you need a specialist. See my other comment for more info.

  13. Sorry, but any biologically-based approach to combating biofilm is doomed to fail. The bug genome can easily develop a workaround. Try a completely new, non-biological approach: http://www.HYBENX.IT.
    Simple, fast, inexpensive, safe, universal, with no absorption, no residue, no chance of resistance development.

    1. Your solution would require several facts that appear very unlikely. The plaque on teeth would need to have been the result of the same Lyme pathogens, albeit the original Lyme bacteria, not the man altered ones, and the man altered ones would have to produce the same biofilm even if harboring contributing different pathogens. Your product may be excellent for plaque, but I doubt the coincidence that it’s the proper anti-biofilm for Lyme and may even be detrimental if taken internally. Can you offer some facts to support your product’s use as an anti-biofilm for Lyme?

    1. Hi John, Thanks for your question. We went back to the scientists to verify but it seems that yes, Stevia has shown a surprisingly strong effect on Borrelia biofilms as is noted in this paper, “Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Agains the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro“, published in the European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology last Fall. It is important to note, however, that these are in vitro results, and Stevia has not been used in animal models yet.

  14. Please add my information to the list to participate in the Agilyte study. I live in the Bay area and I am very interested in this. Thank you so much.

    Nicholas

    1. Hi Marguerite, Thank you for your interest. We can pass along your information to the team at Agile so they can add you to their list for future studies.

    2. I also would be interested in participating in the study. I have the time and no one any longer left in my life depending on me. I suffer alone day in and day out year after year. I have wounds that have not healed in six years. I peel, so very carefully, daily layer-upon-layer of film off my face but it would take a entire day to do this to my entire body. And that is just where I can reach. Anyway I am here if needed. Thank you.

    3. Mimi, Very sorry to hear of your suffering. We will certainly pass on your information to the team at Agile. Roxie, we have also shared your information. Thank you and best wishes.

  15. Dolores, would that maple syrup could cure Lyme! Ha! Sounds like we’re still years away from tackling this disease I’ve had for more than a decade.

    And, Author: “synergy” is a non-word foisted upon us by Madison Ave. The real word is “synergism” (you know, the one whose adjectival form is “synergistic” [not “synergetic”].

    1. I got diagnosed with Lyme in June 2016. I am sorry to hear about your ten years of fighting Lyme. What is the method of treating you are doing?

  16. We have a niece with cystic fibrosis, and battling Lyme since last spring I can say undoubtedly there are similarities. It’s as if common nagging allergies come close to being lethal when fighting lyme. Choking is a daily occurrence. I’m pretty sure my windpipe must resemble the bottom of a derelict boat at times. I have recently had progress with colloidal silver. Don’t know how long I can keep drinking it… But it is helping.

  17. Thanks so much for this research. We need to tackle this world wide epidemic and Borrelia is but one of the pathogens injected from ticks. We also need to address the other pathogens as well and figure out biofilm formation in them. The Lyme community is currently using many biofilm busters like terminalia chebula, cinnamon oil, nattokinase, serrapeptase, curcumin, lumbrokinase, maple syrup, xylitol, and lactoferrin. Next generation DNA sequencing is what we need to ascertain ALL of the bacteria, protozoans, viruses and parasites injected into people. Again, thanks so much for this valuable research!

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